novial
Flag of Novial.svg
Propri nome novial
Informatione
Parlat poki parleres trans li monde
Ofisial lingue nulilok
Parleres tre poki
Range non in 100 maxim grandi
Alfabete latini
Akademie del lingue nulu

Linguistikal klasifikatione

Lingual familie konstrukteti lingue
Lingual grupe international auxiliari lingue
Kodes del lingue
ISO 639-1
ISO 639-2 art
ISO 639-3 nov
SIL nov

Novial (nov + IAL, International Auxiliari Lingue) es konstrukteti lingue kreat da Profesore Otto Jespersen, dani linguiste kel had anteim prenda parte in li kreatione de altri konstrukteti lingue, Ido. Lo kread novial kom international auxiliari lingue (IAL), por plufasilifika international komunikatione, ma sin desplasa uli patrial lingues.

Jespersen unesmim introdukted novial in li angli libre An International Language ye 1928. Ye 1930 lo publisad multingual lexike de novial, Novial Lexike, kun traduktiones in anglum, fransum e germanum. Plusi modifikationes blid proposi ye li 1930 dekyare, ma after li morio de Jespersen ye 1943, lun uso sesad. Durant li 1990 dekyare novial ha atrakte intereso per li interete, e nun es nombre de useres trans li monde.

Ye 24 de novembre 2004 li yahoo-grupe novial-diskusione blid fonda in li interrete. Depos januare 2006 exista li Novial Wikipedie in li interrete.

HistorieEdit

Chefi artikle: Historie de Novial

Un International Lingue (1928)Edit

Novial unesmim bli deskripte in li angli libre An International Language (1928) da Otto Jespersen. Li unesmi parte del libre diskuse li besono por international auxiliari lingue, li desavantajes de national lingues por ti funktione e komuni objetiones konter konstrukteti international auxiliari lingues. Jespersen anke provise kritikal resense del historie de konstrukteti IALs kun sektiones pri Volapük, Esperanto, Idiom Neutral, Ido, Latino sine Flexione e Occidental (Interlingue). Li autore klarifika ke lo usa li grandi quantitate de plu frui verkes pri li probleme, non solim li anteim mentionat IALs.

Li duesmi parte de An International Language detalim deskripte novial. Alternativi posibli solutiones por problemes in li fonologia, ortografia, gramatike e vokablaro bli konsidera. Li selektiones bli explika per komparo kun national e anteim konstrukteti IALs.

Novial Lexike (1930)Edit

Kelki chanjos bli introdukte in li lingue kun li publikatione de Novial Lexike ye 1930. Inter disi chanjos on trova kelki sufixes kom -ntia (konvalescentia, inteligentia, presentia) e -itate (felisitate, sinseritate)[1], e adverbies sin li finale -im (tot nudi, tal-nomat, extrem fasil, bon konstruktet)[1].

Novialiste (1934)Edit

In maye 1934, Otto Jespersen proposid in lon artikle Plubonisat Novial[2] (publisat in li revue Novialiste) li adoptione de un »ortografial» novial apud li original fonetikalim skriptet lingue[3].

Kom resulte de omni disum me proposi ke on have du formes de novial, usabli segun chaken personal prefero:

  1. fonetikal novial (FN) kom li tilnun usat, sin c e sin z.
  2. ortografial novial (ON), kel admise li literes c (kun ç e sc) e z.

Fro 1935 til 1939, Valter Ahlstedt kolaborad in Novialiste. Ye 1937, komisione nomisat Lingual Jurie del Novialistes por plubonisa Novial bli krea, kun Ahlstedt kom sekretario. Pro li influo de Ahlstedt, li nove versione de Novial esed tre proxim a Interlingue. Lon Gramatike Interlingual devenid li nov ofisiali gramatike de Novial. Tamen, Ahlstedt chanjad a Interlingua e tum signifikad li fine del lingue, kel esed sin uso til li 1990 dekyare.

After li morio de Otto JespersenEdit

In li 1990 dekyare, un nov generatione de novialistes (usoniani studantes e linguistes) publikad Novial 98 (Novi International Auxiliari Linguum) che interete. Li briti matematikisto James Chandler publikis multi textes in e pri novial[4]

Novial98 have kelki 20 chanjos, diskutet in intereti forume[1] kom li inklusione de w e z, li aditione de -r al infinitives, ve bli chanja a va e sta bli adi por kontinui tempe (me sta lekter).

Tum esed li komenso de novi novialides kom Novial Pro da Marcos Franco, Eurial de B. Phillip Jonsson, NovIALA e Noviali Interlingue Modernizat, adapted li fundi idees de Guisepe Peano e li labore de Otto Jespersen, Edgar de Wahl e Alexander Gode.

Li grupe de diskusione de Yahoo bli fonda ye 2004 e li Wikipedie in Novial esed kreat ye 2006.

NunimEdit

Li Esperanto haved sukseso plus kam li Novial ma... ob Jespersen komprenad ante omnes que li Anglum vud es li internationali lingue after li Fransum com tum es nunim?

Ob nur li chanse fad ke lo esed profesor de Anglum?

Quam unque es, li gramatike del Novial es li angli gramatike por li verbes e li novial vordes es konosata pri len radikale en li omne monde. Disu dona novi chanse de sukseso nunim al Novial.

GramatikeEdit

Disi artikle parla pri li gramatike de Novial kel apari in li libre 'An International Language', non pri li modifikationes fat aftru.

AlfabeteEdit

Li alfabete de Novial did chanja e kelki literes blid adi aftru, kom li litere z.

Novial A B D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y
IFA /a/ /b/ /d/ /e/~/ɛ/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /i/ /dʒ/, /ʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /o/ /p/ /k/ /r/ /s/, /z/ /t/ /u/ /v/ /w/, /u/, /v/ /ks/ /j/

StreseEdit

EufonieEdit

SubstantivesEdit

NombreEdit

SexuEdit

NeutrumEdit

AdjektivesEdit

KasuEdit

PronominesEdit

singulari plurali nondefiniti
1mi 2mi 3mi 1mi 2mi 3mi
mask. fem. neut. omnigenus mask. fem. neut. omnigenus
Novial me vu lo la lu le nus vus los las lus les on

VerbesEdit

Li verbes nulitem chanja kun persone o nombre. Li maxim parte del tempus, modes e voises bli exprese kun auxiliari verbes presedant li radike del chefi verbe. Li auxiliaris seku li sami ordine de paroles kom li angli equivalenti.

PartisipesEdit

Infinitive e ImperativeEdit

Presente e PreteriteEdit

Future e KonditionaleEdit

Perfekte e PlusquamperfekteEdit

PasiveEdit

Non-direkti ParloEdit

Verbal SistemeEdit

AfixesEdit

PrefixesEdit

pre- denotes
before
previda
foresee
prehistorie
prehistory
prepaga
prepay
anti- denotes
against
antialkoholisme  
anti-alcoholism
antiklerikal   
anticlerical
antimilitariste  
antimilitarist
non- negative prefix  
not
nonexistant
nonexistant
nonposibli
impossible
nonreal
unreal
des- denotes direct
opposite
desobedia  
disobey
desfasil   
difficult
desutili  
harmful, pernicious
dis- denotes dispersion or
separation
disdona  
distribute
dissenda   
send out
distrancha  
carve
mis- denotes
wrongly
mispronuntia  
mispronounce
misdukte   
mislead
miskomprenda  
miscomprehend
mal- denotes
bad
malodoro  
stink
malformat   
malformed
malhumerosi  
ill-tempered
par- denotes
perfectly or thoroughly 
parlerna  
learn thoroughly
parlekte   
read thoroughly
parmori  
die out completely
ri- denotes repetition or
restoration
rielekte  
re-elect
riforma   
reform
rigana  
regain
retro- denotes
back(wards)
retroflua  
flow back
retroaktiv   
retroactive
retroseda
cede back, restore
mi- denotes
half
mihore  
half-hour
miklosat   
half closed
milume  
twilight
bo- denotes relation by
marriage
bopatro  
father-in-law
bofilia   
daughter-in-law
boparentes  
in-laws
ex- denotes
late, former, retired, ex-
ex-presidente  
ex-president
ex-marito   
ex-husband
ex-marita  
ex-wife
arki-
ark-
denotes
arch, senior, main
arkianjele  
archangel
arkepiskopo   
archbishop
arkenemike  
arch-enemy
pseudo- denotes
pseudo-, false
pseudo-sientie  
pseudo-science
pseudo-romanti   
pseudo-romantic
pseudo-profete  
pseudoprophet

SufixesEdit

Substantivali sufixesEdit
-eso to form abstracts, denotes state of being vereso
truth, state of being true
febleso
weakness
venkateso
defeat
-o forms verbal nouns ploro  
weeping
opino   
thinking, opinion
sentio  
feeling, feel
-(t)ione denotes partly the result (as a whole) or the resulting state, partly the way or manner in which something is done definitione
definition
evolutione
evolution
satisfaktione
satisfaction
-um denotes the product of action (as distinct from the way in which it is done) to be added to the passive participle fabrikatum  
manufactured article
printatum   
printed matter
kopiatum  
copy, something copied
-ure denotes the result or product (as distinct from the act itself) pikture  
picture
inventure   
invention
fotografure  
photograph
-ere
-iste
denote operator or person occupied with bakere  
baker
konsiliste   
councillor
klimere  
climber
-iste used for human beings, denotes adherents of a doctrine or those occupied in certain professions ateiste  
atheist
dentiste   
dentist
sientiiste  
scientist
-isme denotes doctrine ateisme  
atheism
kapitalisme   
capitalism
sosialisme  
socialism
-iere denotes a person or thing characterized by a certain object or considered as its bearer pomiere  
apple tree
kandeliere   
candle holder
milioniere  
millionnaire
-arie denotes recipient of an action, the person for whom something is destined sendarie  
addressee
pagarie   
payee
mandatarie
mandate holder
-ia denotes the domain, province or country of someone Anglia  
England
filosofia   
philosophy
printeria  
printing office
-torie denotes place where something is done observatorie  
observatory
dormitorie   
dormitory
promenatorie  
promenade
-aje denotes something made of, consisting of, having the character of lanaje  
woolen goods
lignaje   
woodwork
subtilaje  
(a) subtlety
-ede denotes quantity which fills something kulierede  
spoonful
manuede   
handful
bokede  
mouthful
-aro denotes a collection, group, or set of things homaro  
mankind
vortaro   
vocabulary
aristokrataro  
aristocracy
-ide denotes descendant Atreide  
son of Atreus
regide   
person of royal blood
Napoleonide  
descendant of Napoleon
-yune denotes young one bovyune  
calf
hanyune   
chick
katyune  
kitten
Verbali sufixesEdit
-ira denotes living beings acting as profetira
to prophesy
rivalira
to rival
rebelira
to rebel
-isa
-ifika
to make into, transform into, render justifika
to justify
rektifika
to rectify
modernisa
to modernize
-isa to provide with, supply with, cover with armisa
to arm
harmonisa
to harmonize
spisa
to spice
-ada denotes repeated or continuous action frapada
to go on beating
kantada
to keep on singing
parlada
to keep on speaking
-eska denotes the beginning of an action or state dormieska
to fall asleep
videska
to perceive
paleska
to turn pale
Adjektivali sufixesEdit
-al denotes relating to
– before this suffix any final vowel of the word is dropped except -u which is retained
universal
universal
national
national
sexual
sexual
-an denotes inhabiting or belonging to a class or party italian
Italian
urban
urban
akademian
academic
-ari denotes agreeing with or fit for reglari
regular
populari
popular
ordinari
ordinary
-osi denotes having, especially in large quantity porosi
porous
kurajosi
courageous
danjerosi
dangerous
-isi denotes a very high degree grandisi
enormous
varmisi
hot
belisi
gorgeous
-iv(i) denotes doing naturally or capable of doing instruktiv
instructive
sugestiv
suggestive
atraktiv
attractive
-asi denotes having the tendency or inclination to disputasi
quarrelsome
laborasi
hard-working
atakasi
combative
-bli denotes what is susceptible to the verb (English -ble) lektebli
readable
explikabli
explicable
audibli
audible
-endi denotes that must be
– any final -a or -e of the verb is dropped; any final -u and -i of the verb remains
lektendi
that must be read
faendi
compulsory
soluendi
that must be solved, to be solved
-indi denotes that deserves to be
– any final -a or -e of the verb is dropped; any final -u and -i of the verb remains
lektindi
that is worth reading
fidindi
trustworthy
preferindi
preferable
Generali sufixesEdit
-et- diminutive suffix riverete
brook
varmeti
lukewarm
rideta
to smile
-on- denotes greatness, quantity pluvono
heavy rain
ridona
to guffaw
ridono
guffaw
-ach- denotes contempt kavalacha
nag
jurnalacharo
the gutter press
kriacha
to shriek
Nombrali sufixesEdit
-anti forms tens duanti
twenty
trianti
thirty
otanti
eighty
-o forms nouns from numerals duo
duo
trio
trio
dekduo
dozen
-esmi forms ordinal numbers unesmi
first
duantesmi
twentieth
sentesmi
hundredth
-ime forms fractions duime
a half
sixime
a sixth
sentime
a hundredth
-opli multiplying suffix duopli
double
triopli
triple
multopli
multiple
-opim forms distributive adverbs triopim
in threes
pokopim
little by little
gutopim
in drops
Adverbial SufixesEdit
-tem (from temp) denotes time nultem
never
irgitem
any time, no matter when
ultem
ever, any time
-foy denotes time in repetition, occasion dufoy
twice
altrifoy
another time, on another occasion
kelkifoy
sometimes
-lok denotes place omnilok
everywhere
nulilok
nowhere
altrilok
somewhere else
-kas (from kasu) denotes case omnikas
in every case
irgikas
anyway, in any case when
tikas
in that case
-grad denotes degree altigrad
to a high degree
kelkigrad
to some extent, fairly
pokigrad
to a small extent, slightly
-man (from manere) denotes manner omniman
in every way
altriman
in another way, differently
samiman
in the same way
-m (from -man-) forms adverbs privatim
privately
seperatim
separately
spesialim
specially

PartiklesEdit

PrepositionesEdit

KorelativesEdit

question demonstration indefinite universality negation
person que (-o, -a) te (-o, -a) kelke (-o, -a) omnes nule (-o, -a)
thing quu tu kelku omnus/omnes nulu
quality quali tali
place quilok/vor tilok/dar kelkilok omnilok nulilok
time quitem/quand titem/tand kelkitem omnitem/sempre nulitem
amount quantu tantu kelku omnu nulu
method quiman/qualim/qualiman timan/talim/taliman kelkiman omniman nuliman
reason quirez tirez kelkirez omnirez nulirez
ownership quen/quun ten/tun kelken/kelkun omnen/omnun nulen/nulun

LiteratureEdit

Lu non ha exista literature in Novial. Li maxim parte del textus in Novialiste did es debatos pri li lingue.

Otto Jespersen did tradukte Li Empereren novi vestes[5] e on pove trova du chapritres tradukdet de Li Sorsiere de Oz, fat ye 2005[6][7].

Vicente Costalago publisat Mikri Antologie li 23 de june 2022.[8]

Liste de libres:

  • Novi Ekonomia Sosial, da J. Barral[9]

NovialidesEdit

Novialide es projektes kel eforta plubonisa Novial.

Fro li komense, Novial ha es kritikat e li kreere e altri ha proba plubonisa li lingue.

Kelki novialides es:

  • da li Novial Revisione Komite (a.k.k. "Grupe Novial", "Novial98")
  • da James Chandler
  • Novial Pro, da Marcos Franco
  • Eurial, da B. Phillip Jonsson (nuli pagine; prega nunifikos per e-posto [request updates by emailing] eurial@geocities.com)
  • da Jay Bowks
  • Proyo, es li maxim developad novialide.
  • Reformad Novial, da Vicente Costalago

Vida ankeEdit

ReferentiesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Interlingvistiko: Enkonduko en la sciencon pri planlingvoj
  2. Plubonisat novial
  3. Jespersen, Otto (1938) Men labore por un international lingue: 1. Ante li mondemilite, in Novialiste 19
  4. Novial-Informatione
  5. "Li Empereren novi vestes". Archived from the original on 2015-09-26. Retrieved 2022-05-28. 
  6. Li Siklone
  7. Li Konsilo kun li Munchkines
  8. Mikri antologie
  9. Inter Nos

BibliografiaEdit

  • Auerbach, Siegfried. 1930. Pri nommediati derivatione in li internacional lingues en A Grammatical Miscellany to Otto Jespersen (on his seventiehn birthday) Levin + Munksgaard (Copenhague) / George Allen and Unwin (London).
  • *Jacob, Henry. 1943. Otto Jespersen. His Work for an International Auxiliary Language. International Language (Ido) Society of Great Britain. [1] (en inglés)
  • Jacob, Henry. 1947. Chapter IV Novial (1928) by Otto Jespersen en A Planned Auxiliary Language. [2] (en inglés)
  • Jespersen, Otto. 1928. An International Language. Allen and Unwin, London. [3] (en inglés)
  • Jespersen, Otto. 1930. Novial Lexique. Carl Winter's. Heidelberg. [4] (en inglés)
  • Jespersen, Otto. 1934. Plubonisat novial, en Novialiste N° 1. [5] (en novial)
  • Jespersen, Otto. 1937. Pri reformes in novial, en Novialiste N° 18 diciembre de 1937. [6] (en novial)

Externi linkesEdit


Konstrukteti lingues
International auxiliari lingues:
Adjuvilo · Esperanto · Globasa · Glosa · Idiom Neutral · Ido · Interlingua · Interlingue (Occidental) · Interslavum · Latino sine Flexione · Lingua Franca Nova · Neo · Novial · Romanica · Sona · Volapük
Logikal e filosofikal lingues:
Ceqli · Ithkuil · Láadan · Loglan · Lojban · Toki Pona · Vorlin
Artisti e fiktiv lingues:
Brithenig · Klingonum · Lingua Ignota · Lydnevi · Quenya · Sindarin · Talossanum · Wenedyk